Act 236 of 1991 The Clintons' Education Plan Bill and Hillary's Educational Plan Outlined in Act 236 of 1991

 

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Following are some extremely important quotes from ACT 236 (1991) showing the progression of total government control for Arkansas schools.  Much of this plan, developed by Bill and Hillary Clinton,  has already been implemented, and the current legislation (2003) simply furthers the loss of local control and the continuing takeover by the Arkansas State Dept. of Education.

 

Act 236 is at the bottom of this page.

 

QUOTES FROM ACT   236

 On Assessment:

 

1.  "The fifteen (15) member task force [ to advise the Department of Education] shall include curriculum experts, assessment experts, discipline experts, staff developers and teachers and administrators from restructuring schools. At least three ( 3 ) members of the task force shall be faculty members of institutions of higher education" p. 3, lines 16-20 [ No involvement of classroom teachers here except from restructuring schools.]

 

2.  Arkansas schools need new student performance assessment tools that are well matched to new standards for student performance, and that accurately measures what is taught.  The results of these performance assessment tools must be incorporated into school report cards.  p.  2, lines 27-30 ( no choice here)

 

3.  Therefore, new student performance assessment tools, not limited to standardized tests, will be used to judge student progress.  As more appropriate assessment tools become available, these will be phased in to replace tests currently in use.   p.  3,   lines 35-36 and page 4, lines 1 & 2.

 

4. [Under Teacher licensure Standards] The task force shall "determine the assessment system and tools required to assess the performance of candidates.  Such tools shall not be limited to pencil and paper tests; they must include performance and demonstration."  p. 4, lines 30-32.

 

5.  Page 5, lines 4-6, mentions new assessment tools for licensure of experienced teachers and page 4, lines 10-11 concerning needed legislation for linking " curriculum, assessment and professional development to learner outcomes."  Assessment is also mentioned on page 3, line 11 and page 7, line 23.

 

Outcome Based Licensure

 

6.  "The State Board of Education shall adopt the recommendations of the task force or make such modifications in the recommendations the Board deems appropriate consistent with this mandate that the licensure standards be outcome based." page  4, lines  36 and page  5, lines 1-3.

 

7. [10 year plan for restructuring shall include] "the outcome based system of teacher and administrator licensure pursuant to A.C.A.  6-11 - 205."  P.  7, lines 24-25

 

8.  "The Director of the General Education Division of the Department of Education shall appoint a task force to recommend how to design and implement a system of outcome based licensure of teachers and administrators." page 4, lines 13-16

 

Elements of Act 236 That Take Away Local Control

 

9.  "Arkansas must fundamentally restructure its education system."  page 2, line 18. [no choice here]

 

10. "The State of Arkansas, through the State Board of Education and the General Education Division of the Department of Education, must determine what students must know and be able to do to meet the goals." page 2, lines 9-12

 

11. "Arkansas schools need new student performance assessment tools . . .  The results of these performance assessment tools must be incorporated into school report cards." p. 2, lines 27-30 [Local teachers will have no control here.]

 

12. "The State Board of Education will by July 1, 1991, adopt learner outcomes that define what Arkansas Students must know and be able to do." p.  2, lines       34-35 [State Board develops, not teachers]

 

13. "By July 1, 1991, the General Education Division of the Department of Education with the assistance of the National Alliance for Restructuring Education, shall develop and present to the State Board of Education a proposed plan for working toward integrating stateside curriculum frameworks, student performance assessment tools, and professional development programs to support restructuring the Arkansas education system... The fifteen (15) member task force [ to advise the Department of Education] shall include curriculum experts, assessment experts, discipline experts, staff developers and teachers and administrators from restructuring schools.  At least three (3) members of the task force shall be faculty members of institutions of higher education." page 3, lines 7-20. [Where is the traditional classroom teacherís input and local control?]

 

14. "With the assistance of the National alliance for Restructuring Educations, the General Education Division of the Department of Education shall develop a plan, by July 1, 1991, to accomplish this [ the process of restructuring the Arkansas education system." page 6, lines 23-25. [Again relying on the help of people who are not in the classroom and who are not local people.]

 

15. " In developing and implementing this plan, [Reorienting the Department of Education to Support Restructuring] the General Education Division must model the types of changes required by schools in the restructuring process."  P.  6, lines 33-35 [not much choice here.]

 

16. [Under Support for the Restructuring Schools Process] The General Education Division of the Department fo Education shall provide workshops, seminars, visits to schools involved in restructuring, summer programs, and other means of learning so that schools not yet involved in the restructuring process can make informed determinations about the requirements and expectations of involvement." page 5, lines 18-22. [The words "requirements" and "expectations" do not imply choice or local control.]

 

17. "The director shall appoint an advisory committee comprised of individuals from organizations representing teachers, administrators, school board members, and other educators in Arkansas, to provide ongoing advice to the State Board of Education and the Director, regarding the development and implementation of each of the plans required by the above sections." page 7, lines 34-36 and page 8, lines 1-3. {This is the only place in the law where the local teacher in the classroom can say anything and that would be in relationship to what has already been required.  And to advise would not mean the Director would have to listen.]

 

18. "The Director of the General Education Division of te Department of Educations shall appoint a task force to recommend how to design and implement a system of outcome-based licensure of teachers and administrators.  The task force shall be composed of not more than seventeen (17) persons and shall include teachers, and administrators from restructuring schools, subject matter experts, higher education faculty and administrators, and public and business representatives.  At least three (3) members shall be higher education faculty of administrators who shall be nominated by the Director of the Department of Higher Education." page 4, lines 13-22 [no chance for the traditional classroom teacher to even comment since teachers have to come from restructuring schools, and there really is not much choice anyway since the law mandates the licensure be Outcome Based, see page 5, line 3.]

 

Teacher Training

 

[If the teachers need all the following training, it should be evident that the local teachers are not the ones instigating the changes.]

 

19. "There is hereby established the Academy for Leadership Training and School-based Management.  The Academy will provide a variety of training programs and opportunities to develop the knowledge base and leadership skills of school principals, as well as teachers, superintendents and other administrators, and school board members." page 6, lines 1-5. [ If principals, teachers, superintendents, other administrators, and school board members are going to be trained, isnít it obvious that these changes are not local but being imposed on them.  Since the working includes board members, I presume the training is for people already working, and we know that this type of training is going on all over Arkansas]

 

20. "Arkansas must fundamentally restructure its education system.... It means providing them [educators] with the training they need to teach new materials in new ways, and with leadership and other skills they need to work together in new ways and succeed in a new education environment." page 2, lines 18-24

 

21. "Professional development programs will include, but not be limited to, providing teachers, principals and other administrators, with content knowledge and pedagogical skills required to help all students achieve the learner outcomes" page 4, lines 3-6

 

22. "The General Education Division of the Department of Education shall, with the assistance of the Education Commission of the States and the Coalition of Essential Schools, make available to all schools and school districts involved in a restructuring process the training, technical assistance, networking and other support they require" page 5, lines 9-14

 

23. "The General Education Division of the Department of Education shall provide workshops, seminars, visits to schools involved in restructuring summer programs, and other means of learning so that schools not yet involved in the restructuring process can make informed determinations about the requirements and expectations of involvement.  The General Education Division of the Department of Education, from funds appropriated for such purposes, may provide grants of up to $20,000 to schools and school districts involved in the restructuring process.  The grants shall be provided on a competitive basis for the purposes of" (1) Planning and/or professional development activities to accelerate the restructuring process withing a school or district; or (2) Assisting other schools to learn about school restructuring." page 5, line 18-31

 

24. "The General Education division of the Department of Education with the assistance of the National alliance for Restructuring Education shall develop...professional development programs to support restructuring." page 3, lines 7-12

 

25. "The State Board...identifies any legislation which may be needed in order to continue to link...professional development to the learner outcomes." page 4, lines 7-12

 

Incentives

 

26. "Schools and school districtsí participation in the restructuring process will be given priority by the General Education Division in the allocation of federal funds provided to the Division for improvement of math and science education." page 5, lines 32-35

______________________________________________________________________________

ACT 236 OF 1991 - AN ACT TO AMEND ARKANSAS CODE ANNOTATED TITLE 6, CHAPTER 11, BY ADDING A SUBCHAPTER TWO TO DIRECT THE STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION TO DETERMINE WHAT ARKANSAS SCHOOLS MUST DO TO MEET THE NATIONAL EDUCATION GOALS; AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES."

     As Engrossed: 2/22/91

State of Arkansas

78th General Assembly     A Bill     ACT 236 OF 1991

Regular Session, 1991     SB264

By:

 

         For An Act To Be Entitled

"AN ACT TO AMEND ARKANSAS CODE ANNOTATED TITLE 6, CHAPTER 11, BY ADDING A SUBCHAPTER TWO TO DIRECT THE STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION TO DETERMINE WHAT ARKANSAS SCHOOLS MUST DO TO MEET THE NATIONAL EDUCATION GOALS; AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES."

BE IT ENACTED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF THE STATE OF ARKANSAS:

     SECTION 1.   Arkansas Code of 1987 Annotated is hereby amended to add the following:

     "6-11-201.  POPULAR NAME.  This subchapter may be cited as 'Meeting the National Education Goals:  Schools for Arkansas' Future'.

     6-11-202.  PREAMBLE.  One year ago the President and the nation's Governors adopted the following national education goals:

     (1)     By the year 2000, all children in America will start school ready to learn.

     (2)     By the year 2000, the high school graduation rate will be increased to at least 90 percent.

     (3)     By the year 2000, American students will leave grades four, eight and twelve having demonstrated competency over challenging subject matter including English, mathematics, science, history, and geography, and every school in America will ensure that all students learn to use their minds well, so they may be prepared for responsible citizenship, further learning, and productive employment in our modern economy.

     (4)     By the year 2000, U.S. students will be first in the world in mathematics and science achievement.

     (5)     By the year 2000, every adult American will be literate and will possess the knowledge and skills necessary to compete in a global economy and exercise the rights and responsibilities of citizenship.

     (6)     By the year 2000, every school in America will be free of drugs and violence and will offer a disciplined learning environment conducive to learning.

     These goals are ambitious, but they can and must be achieved.  They set standards for student performance that Arkansas schools, as well as those in every other state, are far from achieving.

     Achieving these goals will require a serious reexamination of every aspect of Arkansas' education system, and fundamental changes in our schools.  The State of Arkansas, through the State Board of Education, and the General Education Division of the Department of Education, must determine what students must know and be able to do in order to meet the goals.  This will not simply require more students to learn what is already taught.  Instead, it will require a curriculum that places a greater emphasis on teaching students to think, and to apply methods that are appropriate to ensure that all students will master the more challenging curriculum.

     In order to achieve these new levels of performance within existing and limited resources, Arkansas must fundamentally restructure its education system.  This means providing educators in every school with the flexibility and tools they need to determine the best way to achieve the goals with their students.  It means providing them with the training they need to teach new materials in new ways, and with leadership and other skills they need to work together in new ways and succeed in a new education environment.  Institutions of higher education must commit themselves to effectively providing new teachers with the content knowledge and pedagogical skills required to help all students achieve the goals.  Arkansas schools need new student performance assessment tools that are well matched to new standards for student performance, and that accurately measure what is taught.  The results of these performance assessment tools must be incorporated into school report cards so that parents and the general public will be informed as to what students are expected to know and to be able to do and how well Arkansas public schools are performing.

     6-11-203.  DEFINITION OF LEARNER OUTCOMES.  The State Board of Education shall, by July 1, 1991, adopt learner outcomes that define what Arkansas students must know, and be able to do in order to be competitive nationally and internationally, in the context of the National Education Goals.  The learner outcomes should also link to expectations for success in college and should include the implementation of feedback mechanisms from higher education institutions to public schools.

     6-11-204.  LINKING CURRICULUM, ASSESSMENT AND PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION AND DEVELOPMENT TO LEARNER OUTCOMES.

     (a)     By July 1, 1991, the General Education Division of the Department of Education with the assistance of the National Alliance for Restructuring Education, shall develop and present to the State Board of Education a proposed plan for working toward integrating state-wide curriculum frameworks, student performance assessment tools, and professional development programs to support restructuring the Arkansas education system.

     The Director of the General Education Division of the Department of Education shall appoint a task force to advise the General Education Division in the development of this plan.  The fifteen (15) member task force shall include curriculum experts, assessment experts, discipline experts, staff developers, and teachers and administrators from restructuring schools.  At least three (3) members of the task force shall be faculty members of institutions of higher education.  Once a plan has been developed, the task force shall remain in existence to advise the Director on its implementation on an ongoing basis.

     The State Board of Education shall accept written comments on the proposed plan from July 1, through August 1, 1991.  The State Board of Higher Education shall review the proposed plan during the comment period and provide appropriate comments and recommendations regarding those components of the plan which relate to the responsibilities of institutions of higher education.

     (b)(1) Curriculum frameworks will define the broad themes and topics for instruction that will prepare students to demonstrate the learner outcomes.

          (2)     New learner outcomes and curriculum frameworks will establish new and higher standards for student performance.  Tests currently in use will not be adequate to judge student learning against these new standards.  Therefore, new student performance assessment tools, not limited to standardized tests, will be used to judge student progress.  As more appropriate assessment tools become available, they will be phased in to replace test currently in use.

          (3)     Professional development programs will include, but not be limited to, providing teachers, principals and other administrators, with content knowledge and pedagogical skills required to help all students achieve the learner outcomes.

     (c)     By July 1, 1992, the State Board of Education shall submit a report to the Governor and the Legislature, that describes the implementation of the activities contained in the plan, and identifies any legislation which may be needed in order to continue to link curriculum, assessment, and professional development to the learner outcomes, in order to achieve the national education goals.

     6-11-205.  TEACHER LICENSURE STANDARDS.  (a)  The Director of the General Education Division of the Department of Education shall appoint a task force to recommend how to design and implement a system of outcome-based licensure of teachers and administrators.  The task force shall be composed of not more than seventeen (17) persons and shall include teachers, and administrators from restructuring schools, subject matter experts, higher education faculty and administrators, and public and business representatives.  At least three (3) members shall be higher education faculty or administrators who shall be nominated by the Director of the Department of Higher Education.  The Director of the Department of Higher Education shall also serve as an ex-officio member of the task force.  The task force shall:

          (1)     Define standards for what beginning teachers and administrators must know and be able to do, with specific reference to content knowledge and pedagogical skills, and the knowledge, skills and capacity to assume beginning professional roles and responsibilities in restructured schools.

          (2)     Determine the assessment systems and tools required to assess the performance of candidates.  Such tools shall not be limited to pencil and paper tests; they must include performance and demonstrations of the ability to apply knowledge and skills to real or simulated educational settings.

     The task force shall submit its recommendations to the State Board of Education by January 1, 1992.  The State Board of Education shall adopt the recommendations of the task force or make such modification in the recommendations as the Board deems appropriate consistent with this mandate that the licensure standards be outcome based.

     (b)     The licensure standards and assessment tools developed through this process and adopted by the State Board of Education shall be applied in the same fashion to candidates for licensure who have completed conventional teacher preparation programs as well as those who have prepared themselves through alternative routes.

     6-11-206.  SUPPORT FOR THE RESTRUCTURING SCHOOLS PROCESS.  (a) The General Education Division of the Department of Education shall, with the assistance of the Education Commission of the States and the Coalition of Essential Schools, make available to all schools and school districts involved in a restructuring process the training, technical assistance, networking and other support they require.  The Director shall designate not less than ten (10) nor more than twenty-five (25) schools or school districts which have begun the restructuring process to serve as examples for other schools and school districts.

     (b)     The General Education Division of the Department of Education shall provide workshops, seminars, visits to schools involved in restructuring, summer programs, and other means of learning so that schools not yet involved in the restructuring process can make informed determinations about the requirements and expectations of involvement.

     (c)     The General Education Division of the Department of Education, from funds appropriated for such purposes, may provide grants of up to $20,000 to schools and school districts involved in the restructuring process.  The grants shall be provided on a competitive basis for the purposes of:

          (1)     Planning and/or professional development activities to accelerate the restructuring process within a school or district; or

          (2)     Assisting other schools to learn about school restructuring.

     (d)     Schools and school districts participating in the restructuring process shall be given priority by the General Education Division in the allocation of federal funds provided to the Division for improvement of math and science education.

     6-11-207.  ACADEMY FOR LEADERSHIP TRAINING AND SCHOOL BOARD MANAGEMENT.  There is hereby established the Academy for Leadership Training and School Based Management.  The Academy will provide a variety of training programs and opportunities to develop the knowledge base and leadership skills of school principals, as well as teachers, superintendents and other administrators, and school board members.  The Academy need not be located in a single institution or organization; it may be a consortia of institutions of higher education, local school districts and other education institutions or organizations.

     By September 1, 1991, the General Education Division shall develop and publish a request for proposals for the initial structure and operation of the Academy.  An award for the operation of the Academy for its initial term shall be made by the State Board of Education not later than January 1, 1992.  The State Board of Education shall have the authority to issue subsequent requests for proposals if the Board should determine to change the operator or the location of the Academy.

     6-11-208.  REORIENTING THE GENERAL EDUCATION DIVISION OF THE ARKANSAS DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TO SUPPORT RESTRUCTURING.  (a) The leadership and support of the General Education Division of the Department of Education is essential to facilitate the process of restructuring the Arkansas education system.  In order to fulfill this function, the role, mission, operations and resources of the division need to be substantially reoriented and the staff need training and support.  With the assistance of the National Alliance for Restructuring Education, the General Education Division of the Department of Education shall develop a plan, by July 1, 1991, to accomplish this.

     This plan shall address the increased importance of providing support and assistance to schools and districts, the allocation and reallocation of resources, the establishment of comprehensive data bases for planning and monitoring, the need to shift from discreet programmatic efforts to more integrated and cohesive strategies supportive of the goals for education, staff roles and responsibilities, organizational structure, and training and professional development needs, and other topics deemed necessary.  In developing and implementing this plan, the General Education Division must model the types of changes required by schools in the restructuring process.

     (b)     Upon determination by the Director of the General Education Division of the Department of Education that a reallocation of the resources of the Division is necessary to provide support and assistance to schools and school districts in restructuring and in meeting the goals of this subchapter, the Director, after receiving approval of the Governor, shall request from the Chief Fiscal Officer of the State a transfer of positions, appropriations, and/or funds within or between appropriations or programs of the General Education Division.  Prior to acting on the requested transfer, the Chief Fiscal Officer shall submit the transfer request with his recommendation to the Legislative Council.

     If the Chief Fiscal Officer approves the requested transfer, he shall initiate the necessary transfer documents to reflect the transfer on the fiscal records of the State Auditor, the State Treasurer, the Chief Fiscal Officer, and the General Education Division of the Department of Education.

     6-11-209.  DEVELOPMENT OF A LONG TERM PLAN FOR RESTRUCTURING ARKANSAS' EDUCATION SYSTEM.  The General Education Division of the Department of Education shall develop and submit to the State Board of Education a proposed ten (10) year plan for restructuring the Arkansas education system in order to achieve the national education goals.  The proposed plan shall include provisions for managing the change process and monitoring progress towards the goals.  The definitions of learner outcomes adopted pursuant to A.C.A. 6-11-203; the plan for linking curriculum, assessment and professional preparation and development to learner outcomes adopted pursuant to A.C.A. 6-11-204; the outcome-based system of teacher and administrator licensure adopted pursuant to A.C.A. 6-11-205; and the plan for reallocation of the resources of the General Education Division adopted pursuant to A.C.A. 6-11-208 shall be components of the long term plan.  The proposed plan shall take into account needed policy and administrative changes at district and state levels to provide a supportive environment for schools to restructure and be presented to the State Board of Education not later than January 1, 1992.  The Board, after soliciting and reviewing written comments, shall adopt a long term restructuring plan not later than April 1, 1992.

     6-11-210.  ADVICE FROM EDUCATORS.  The Director shall appoint an advisory committee comprised of individuals from organizations representing teachers, administrators, school board members and other educators in Arkansas, to provide ongoing advice to the State Board of Education and the Director, regarding the development and implementation of each of the plans required by the above sections."

     SECTION 2.   CODE.  All provisions of this Act of a general and permanent nature are amendatory to the Arkansas Code of 1987 Annotated and the Arkansas Code Revision Commission shall incorporate the same in the Code.

     SECTION 3.   SEVERABILITY.  If any provision of this Act or the application thereof to any person or circumstance is held invalid, such invalidity shall not affect other provisions or applications of the Act which can be given effect without the invalid provision or application, and to this end the provisions of this Act are declared to be severable.

     SECTION 4.   GENERAL REPEALER.  All laws and parts of laws in conflict with this Act are hereby repealed.

     /s/Russ et al

     APPROVED: 2-25-91

 

 

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